The order of these prophesied events, is clear. That, in turn, helps us better to understand their character. After first understanding when, we can better understand what.
First, Jerusalem would fall to the (Roman) Gentiles in 70 A.D. At that time, the Judaists would largely be annihilated.
Second, that would be followed by the “time of the Gentiles.” During this time — as we are informed elsewhere in Scripture (Rom 11:25) — the “fullness of the Gentiles” comes into Membership of the Christian Church, while part of the Judaists alias ethnic Israel remains spiritually blinded.
Third, this treading down of Jerusalem by Gentiles would terminate when “the times of the Gentiles” would be fulfilled. This fulfilment will take place, when the Deliverer Jesus Christ will be preached with great success by the largely-Gentile Christians alias the true Zion. Thus the Church preaches Christ also to ethnic Israel alias the unconverted Jews — and increasingly so. In this way, Christ “shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob” alias ethnic Israel (Rom 11:25f) — and christianize also the Jewish Nation.
Fourth, this conversion of the Jews as a People will then be followed by a time of universal blessing – in Christ for both Gentiles and Jews. During that time, “all Israel shall be saved” — that is, both Jews and Gentiles. “For God has concluded them all in unbelief, so that He might [in the future] have mercy upon all [Jews and Gentiles].” (Rom 11:30-32)
Fifth, this will then ultimately be followed by the end of World History. For “then shall they see the Son of man coming on a cloud — with power and great glory.” (Luke 21:27) O Christian, the Kingdom of God shall yet be extended to both Gentiles and Jews! Even hardened ethnic Israel shall yet be saved! For God shall “have mercy upon all!” Luke 21:24f cf. Romans 11:23-32.
After 70 A.D., the Gospel would unfold ever more widely and powerfully — and ultimately be promulgated to all the Nations in the World. Also before but especially after the destruction of the wicked Jerusalem in 70 A.D., the Son of man sends forth His Angel-Messengers like the sound of a great trumpet to gather His elect from the four corners of the Earth. Matthew 24:30-35 & 26:64 cf. Psalm 22:27 & Isaiah 45:22f & Revelation 14:6f.
For the Gospel gradually subdues the raging seas of the Heathen Nations, and will finally cause their Leaders to fall down from their pagan heights before Jesus — like shooting stars. Gradually, the Gospel thus makes wars to cease, and international peace to increase. (Mark 13:24f, per contra 14:4-14)